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Cancer Research: Phytonanotherapy for management of diabetes using green synthesis nanoparticles.



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Phytonanotherapy for management of diabetes using green synthesis nanoparticles.

J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017 Aug;173:626-639

Authors: Anand K, Tiloke C, Naidoo P, Chuturgoon AA

Abstract
The world has a rich diversity of indigenous medicinal plants. The World Health Organization (WHO) gives high priority to eco-friendly, non-hazardous and cost effective healthcare such as the use of medicinal plants to treat various illnesses, including Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), diabetes mellitus (DM), malaria, and cancer. In developing countries, a high proportion of the population tends to use complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) together with conventional prescription drugs. Globally, CAM has been used in both developed and developing countries. In China, 30-50% of medicinal use is based on traditional alternative medicine. In Africa, it is estimated that 80% of primary health care is CAM, whilst in the USA, about 158 million people us CAM. This increase is due to three main influences: improve their eminence of life, relieve symptoms and preclude long-term complications. Despite the advances and advantages of conventional pharmaceutical medication, these are associated with long-term side effects and pose risks of inefficacy for treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer and DM. The biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs) using medicinal plants has received considerable attention as a proper alternative to using hazardous chemical and physical synthetic techniques. Plants are being exploited for their unique metal tolerance and effective production of gold metal NPs. A single medicinal plant contains an orchestra of chemical elements (e.g. proteins, vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, polysaccharides and organic compounds) that are “environmentally benign, yet chemically complex” and therefore serve as ideal tools for enhanced medicinal applications. It is reported that phytocompounds such as terpenoids, polysaccharides, polyols and flavones take part in the bio-reduction, stabilization and bio-capping mechanisms to form stable gold and silver NPs. Also the inhibitory potential of plant compounds against diabetic targets followed by a study of enzyme inhibitor kinetics, ligand binding dynamics supported by in silico docking studies that reveal the mode of bioactive compounds and their inhibitory activities. The present review focuses on the potential anticancer, antidiabetic and antimicrobial activity of phyto-synthesized gold and silver NPs. In phytonanotherapy, synergistic features of plant and metal NPs are unique as they offer healing properties that may be the clinical bioequivalent to many synthetic drugs, with minimal side effects. This could provide alternative treatment for chronic diseases that is efficient to overcome the disadvantages of synthetic monotherapy and allows medicinal plant therapy to co-exist with current synthetic treatments. This creates a much needed paradigm shift for further clinical studies in non-communicable and communicable diseases.

PMID: 28709077 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

pubmed: cancer complementary…

Cancer Research: Diabetes drugs and the incidence of solid cancers: a survey of the current evidence.



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Diabetes drugs and the incidence of solid cancers: a survey of the current evidence.

Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2017 Oct;16(10):1133-1148

Authors: Tuccori M, Convertino I, Galiulo MT, Marino A, Capogrosso-Sansone A, Blandizzi C

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of the relationship between the use of antidiabetic drug and the occurrence of cancer is extremely challenging, both from the clinical and pharmacoepidemiological standpoint. This narrative review described the current evidence supporting a relationship between the use of antidiabetic drugs and the incidence of solid cancers. Areas covered: Data from pharmacoepidemiological studies on cancer incidence were presented for the main antidiabetic drugs and drug classes, including human insulin and insulin analogues, metformin, sulfonylureas, glinides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, incretin mimetics, and sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. The relationship between the use of antidiabetics and the incidence of solid cancer was described in strata by any cancer and by organ-specific cancer and by drug and by drug classes. Information supporting biological evidence and putative mechanisms were also provided. Expert opinion: The history of exploration of the relationship between antidiabetic drugs and the risk of solid cancers has showed several issues. Unrecognized biases and misinterpretations of study results have had important consequences that delayed the identification of actual risk and benefits of the use of antidiabetic drugs associated with cancer occurrence or progression. The lesson learned from the past should address the future research in this area, since in the majority of cases findings are controversial and confirmatory studies are warranted.

PMID: 28748718 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

pubmed: clinical cancer rese…

Cancer Research: The impact of having both cancer and diabetes on patient-reported outcomes: a systematic review and directions for future research.



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The impact of having both cancer and diabetes on patient-reported outcomes: a systematic review and directions for future research.

J Cancer Surviv. 2016 Apr;10(2):406-15

Authors: Vissers PA, Falzon L, van de Poll-Franse LV, Pouwer F, Thong MS

Abstract
PURPOSE: This systematic review aims to summarize the current literature regarding potential effects of having both cancer and diabetes on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and to provide directions for future research.
METHODS: MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from inception to January 2015. All English peer-reviewed studies that included patients with both cancer and diabetes and assessed PROs were included. All included studies were independently assessed on methodological quality by two investigators.
RESULTS: Of the 3553 identified studies, 10 studies were included and all were considered of high (40%) or adequate (60%) methodological quality. Eight of the 10 studies focused on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), functioning, or symptoms and 2 studies assessed diabetes self-management. Overall, HRQoL and functioning was lower, and symptoms were higher among patients with both cancer and diabetes as compared to having cancer or diabetes alone. Furthermore, one study reported that diabetes self-management was impaired after chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Having both cancer and diabetes resulted in worse PROs compared to having either one of the diseases, however, the considerable heterogeneity of the included studies hampered strong conclusions. Future studies are needed as this research area is largely neglected. As the majority of the included studies focused on HRQoL, future research should address the impact of both diseases on other PROs such as depression, patient empowerment and self-management.
IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVOR: Having both cancer and diabetes might result in worse PROs, however, more research is needed as current evidence is scarce.

PMID: 26428396 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

pubmed: clinical cancer rese…

Cancer Research: Opposite associations between alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase levels and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes: Analysis of the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study.



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Opposite associations between alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase levels and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes: Analysis of the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study.

Metabolism. 2016 May;65(5):783-93

Authors: Williams KH, Sullivan DR, Nicholson GC, George J, Jenkins AJ, Januszewski AS, Gebski VJ, Manning P, Tan YM, Donoghoe MW, Ehnholm C, Young S, O’Brien R, Buizen L, Twigg SM, Keech AC

Abstract
AIMS: Reported associations between liver enzymes and mortality may not hold true in type 2 diabetes, owing to a high prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which has been linked to cardiovascular disease and mortality in its own right. Our study aimed to determine whether alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels predict mortality in type 2 diabetes, and to examine possible mechanisms.
METHODS: Data from the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study were analyzed to examine the relationship between liver enzymes and all-cause and cause-specific mortality over 5years.
RESULTS: Over 5years, 679 (6.9%) individuals died. After adjustment, for every standard deviation increase in ALT (13.2U/L), the HR for death on study was 0.85 (95% CI 0.78-0.93), p<0.001. Conversely, GGT >70U/L, compared with GGT ≤70U/L, had HR 1.82 (1.48-2.24), p<0.001. For cause-specific mortality, lower ALT was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular death only, whereas GGT >70U/L was associated with higher risks of death due to cardiovascular disease, cancer and non-cancer/non-cardiovascular causes. The relationship for ALT persisted after adjustment for indirect measures of frailty but was attenuated by elevated hsCRP.
CONCLUSIONS: As in the general population, ALT has a negative, and GGT a positive, correlation with mortality in type 2 diabetes when ALT is less than two times the upper limit of normal. The relationship for ALT appears specific for death due to cardiovascular disease. Links of low ALT with frailty, as a potential mechanism for relationships seen, were neither supported nor conclusively refuted by our analysis and other factors are also likely to be important in those with type 2 diabetes.

PMID: 27085785 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

pubmed: clinical cancer rese…

Cancer Research: Diabetes and cancer, common threads and missing links.



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Diabetes and cancer, common threads and missing links.

Cancer Lett. 2016 Apr 28;374(1):54-61

Authors: Hua F, Yu JJ, Hu ZW

Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a serious and growing health problem worldwide and is associated with severe acute and chronic complications. Accruing epidemiological and clinical evidence have suggested that an increased cancer incidence is associated with diabetes as well as certain diabetes risk factors and diabetes medications. Several pathophysiological mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, enhanced inflammation, aberrant metabolic state, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and deregulation of autophagy. In addition to these potential mechanisms, a number of common risk factors, including obesity, may be behind the association between diabetes and cancer. Furthermore, different anti-diabetic medications may modify cancer risk and mortality in patients with diabetes. This Review discusses evidence to support the relationship between diabetes and cancer development as well as the underlying mechanisms. We also discuss the relationship of current diabetes treatments and cancer risk or prognosis. Understanding the mechanisms that connect type 2 diabetes or diabetes treatments to cancer are crucial for establishing the fundamental strategies concerning about primary prevention, early detection and effective therapy against these diseases.

PMID: 26879686 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

pubmed: clinical cancer rese…