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Cancer Research: Consolidation chemotherapy during neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for distal rectal cancer leads to sustained decrease in tumor metabolism when compared to standard CRT regimen.


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Consolidation chemotherapy during neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for distal rectal cancer leads to sustained decrease in tumor metabolism when compared to standard CRT regimen.

Radiat Oncol. 2016 Feb 24;11:24

Authors: Habr-Gama A, Perez RO, São Julião GP, Proscurshim I, Fernandez LM, Figueiredo MN, Gama-Rodrigues J, Buchpiguel CA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant CRT may lead to significant tumor regression in patients with rectal cancer. Different CRT regimens with consolidation chemotherapy may lead to increased rates of complete tumor regression. The purpose of this study was to understand tumor metabolic activity following two different neoadjuvant CRT regimens using sequential PET/CT imaging in two different intervals following RT.
METHODS: Patients with cT2-4 N0-2 M0 rectal cancer treated by standard CRT (54Gy and 2 cycles of 5FU-based chemotherapy) or extended CRT (54Gy and 6 cycles of 5FU-based chemotherapy) underwent sequential PET/CT imaging at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks from radiation completion.
RESULTS: 99 patients undergoing standard CRT were compared to 12 patients undergoing CRT with consolidation chemotherapy. Patients treated with consolidation CRT had increased rates of complete clinical or pathological response (66 % vs. 23 %; p < 0.001). SUVmax variation between baseline and 6 weeks (88 % vs. 63 %; p < 0.001) and between baseline and 12 weeks (90 % vs. 57 %; p < 0.001) were significantly more pronounced among patients undergoing extended CRT with consolidation chemotherapy. An increase in SUVmax between 6 and 12 weeks was observed in 51 % of patients undergoing standard and 18 % of patients undergoing consolidation CRT (p = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: Most of the reduction in tumor metabolism after neoadjuvant CRT occurs within the first 6 weeks from RT completion. In patients undergoing CRT with consolidation chemotherapy, tumors are less likely to regain metabolic activity between 6 and 12 weeks. Therefore, assessment of tumor response may be safely postponed to 12 weeks in patients undergoing extended CRT with consolidation chemotherapy.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00254683.

PMID: 26911200 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

pubmed: clinical cancer rese…

Cancer Research: Phase II Study of Allogeneic Transplantation for Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission Using a Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimen: Results From Cancer and Leukemia Group B 100103 (Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology)/Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trial Network 0502.


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Phase II Study of Allogeneic Transplantation for Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission Using a Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimen: Results From Cancer and Leukemia Group B 100103 (Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology)/Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trial Network 0502.

J Clin Oncol. 2015 Dec 10;33(35):4167-75

Authors: Devine SM, Owzar K, Blum W, Mulkey F, Stone RM, Hsu JW, Champlin RE, Chen YB, Vij R, Slack J, Soiffer RJ, Larson RA, Shea TC, Hars V, Sibley AB, Giralt S, Carter S, Horowitz MM, Linker C, Alyea EP

Abstract
PURPOSE: Long-term survival rates for older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are extremely low. Previous observational studies suggest that allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) may improve overall survival (OS) because of lower rates of relapse. We sought to prospectively determine the value of HSCT for older patients with AML in first complete remission.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective multicenter phase II study to assess the efficacy of reduced-intensity conditioning HSCT for patients between the ages of 60 and 74 years with AML in first complete remission. The primary end point was disease-free survival at 2 years after HSCT. Secondary end points included nonrelapse mortality (NRM), graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), relapse, and OS.
RESULTS: In all, 114 patients with a median age of 65 years received transplantations. The majority (52%) received transplantations from unrelated donors and were given antithymocyte globulin for GVHD prophylaxis. Disease-free survival and OS at 2 years after transplantation were 42% (95% CI, 33% to 52%) and 48% (95% CI, 39% to 58%), respectively, for the entire group and 40% (95% CI, 29% to 55%) and 50% (95% CI, 38% to 64%) for the unrelated donor group. NRM at 2 years was 15% (95% CI, 8% to 21%). Grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD occurred in 9.6% (95% CI, 4% to 15%) of patients, and chronic GVHD occurred in 28% (95% CI, 19% to 36%) of patients. The cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years was 44% (95% CI, 35% to 53%).
CONCLUSION: Reduced-intensity conditioning HSCT to maintain remission in selected older patients with AML is relatively well tolerated and appears to provide superior outcomes when compared with historical patients treated without HSCT. GVHD and NRM rates were lower than expected. Future transplantation studies in these patients should focus on further reducing the risk of relapse.

PMID: 26527780 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

pubmed: clinical cancer rese…

Cancer Research: Addition of aprepitant improves protection against cisplatin-induced emesis when a conventional anti-emetic regimen fails.


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Addition of aprepitant improves protection against cisplatin-induced emesis when a conventional anti-emetic regimen fails.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014 Jun;73(6):1129-36

Authors: Hu W, Fang J, Nie J, Dai L, Chen X, Zhang J, Ma X, Tian G, Han J

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether aprepitant, a neurokinin-1 antagonist, could decrease chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) following cisplatin, when a conventional anti-emetic regimen had failed.
METHODS: This was a prospective study (April 2011-April 2012) of patients with lung cancer, treated with cisplatin at the Beijing Cancer Hospital, and initially receiving granisetron, dexamethasone, and metoclopramide as anti-emetics. If patients experienced vomiting of grade ≥2 and required rescue anti-emetic medications during the first cycle, oral aprepitant was added in subsequent cycles (day 1: 125 mg; days 2-3: 80 mg once daily). Acute (day 1) and delayed (days 2-5) nausea and vomiting, use of rescue medications, and occurrence of adverse reactions were monitored after the start of chemotherapy.
RESULTS: Twenty-five of 132 patients (18.9 %) were administered aprepitant for secondary prophylaxis against emesis during the second cycle of chemotherapy. The incidences of acute and delayed nausea were 52 and 100 % in the first cycle, but 8 and 72 % in the second cycle. The incidences of acute and delayed vomiting were 20 and 100 % in the first cycle, but 0 and 36 % in the second cycle. No patients required rescue medications or intravenous rehydration during the second cycle. Aprepitant was not associated with additional adverse events.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with lung cancer receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the addition of aprepitant to a 5-HT3 antagonist, dexamethasone, and metoclopramide improves protection against CINV when the conventional anti-emetic regimen fails.

PMID: 24748417 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

pubmed: clinical cancer rese…

Cancer Research: A combination of oral uracil-tegafur plus leucovorin (UFT + LV) is a safe regimen for adjuvant chemotherapy after hepatectomy in patients with colorectal cancer: safety report of the UFT/LV study.


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A combination of oral uracil-tegafur plus leucovorin (UFT + LV) is a safe regimen for adjuvant chemotherapy after hepatectomy in patients with colorectal cancer: safety report of the UFT/LV study.

Drug Discov Ther. 2014 Feb;8(1):48-56

Authors: Saiura A, Yamamoto J, Hasegawa K, Oba M, Takayama T, Miyagawa S, Ijichi M, Teruya M, Yoshimi F, Kawasaki S, Koyama H, Makuuchi M, Kokudo N

Abstract
The use of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy for resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) is controversial because no trial demonstrated its benefit. We conducted the phase III trial to evaluate UFT/leucovorin (LV) for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). The primary endpoint has not been available until 2014, we first report the feasibility and safety data of UFT/LV arm. In this multicenter trial, patients who underwent curative resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to receive surgery alone or surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with UFT/LV. The primary endpoint was relapse-free survival. Secondary endpoints included overall survival and safety. A total of 180 patients were enrolled, 90 were randomly assigned to receive UFT/LV therapy. Eighty two of whom were included in safety analyses. In the UFT/LV group, the completion rate of UFT/LV was 54.9%, the relative dose intensity was 70.8% and grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred in 12.2% of the patients. Elevated bilirubin levels, decreased hemoglobin levels, elevated alanine aminotransferase levels, diarrhea, anorexia were common. Most other adverse events were grade 2 or lower and tolerable. In conclusions, UFT/LV is a safe regimen for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who have undergone resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Further studies are warranted to improve completion rate, but UFT/LV is found to be a promising treatment in this setting.

PMID: 24647158 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

pubmed: clinical cancer rese…

Cancer Research: Rationale for the design of an oncology trial using a generic targeted therapy multi‑drug regimen for NSCLC patients without treatment options (Review).


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Rationale for the design of an oncology trial using a generic targeted therapy multi‑drug regimen for NSCLC patients without treatment options (Review).

Oncol Rep. 2013 Oct;30(4):1535-41

Authors: Langhammer S

Abstract
Despite more than 70 years of research concerning medication for cancer treatment, the disease still remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Many cancer types lead to death within a period of months to years. The original class of chemotherapeutics is not selective for tumor cells and often has limited efficacy, while treated patients suffer from adverse side‑effects. To date, the concept of tumor‑specific targeted therapy drugs has not fulfilled its expectation to provide a key for a cure. Today, many oncology trials are designed using a combination of chemotherapeutics with targeted therapy drugs. However, these approaches have limited outcomes in most cancer indications. This perspective review provides a rationale to combine targeted therapy drugs for cancer treatment based on observations of evolutionary principles of tumor development and HIV infections. In both diseases, the mechanisms of immune evasion and drug resistance can be compared to some extent. However, only for HIV is a breakthrough treatment available, which is the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The principles of HAART and recent findings from cancer research were employed to construct a hypothetical model for cancer treatment with a multi‑drug regimen of targeted therapy drugs. As an example of this hypothesis, it is proposed to combine already marketed targeted therapy drugs against VEGFRs, EGFR, CXCR4 and COX2 in an oncology trial for non‑small cell lung cancer patients without further treatment options.

PMID: 23877481 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

pubmed: clinical cancer rese…